The professor’s purpose is to illustrate Confucius’s respect for tradition. The quote states that Confucius valued the wisdom of the ancients and illustrates his belief that teachers should continue the ancient tradition. (2.3)
The professor says Confucius was a revolutionary because he believed that there should be no distinction of social class in education. He believed that education should be, um, not just for the privileged class, but for any boy or girl who was able and willing to learn. (2.2)
The professor says …pragmatism was highly influential in several fields… especially education. One of its leading thinkers was the American philosopher John Dewey. (2.2)
44. C, D
The idea that the education of the individual will benefit society is important in both philosophies: Dewey believed that the cultivation of the individual would benefit society as a whole…; This is similar to the Confucian idea…that the greatness of individuals is necessary for social order. Another important idea is that education is a combination of knowledge and experience:
Confucius believed that the processes of teaching and learning stimulate each other; …the ideal teacher is one who goes over what he s already learned and gains some new understanding from the experience. Compare this to Dewey’s idea that education is a continuously constructive process, with experience and knowledge building on each other. (2.2)
The professor implies that Confucius and Dewey had similar ideas about the continuous nature of learning. Confucius believed that reviewing past learning can produce some new understanding. Dewey believed that education is a continuously constructive process and that experience and knowledge build on each other. (2.4)
46. B, D
The professor discusses behaviors that help prey avoid predators: Prey species have adaptations, too—physical and behavioral adaptations that enable them to elude predators and avoid being eaten; …hiding…; … escaping…, … running away…;… alarm call…; …mobbing. The professor also discusses defensive coloration: Some animals rely on defensive coloration; Another defensive adaptation is warning coloration. (2.1)
The professor’s purpose is to illustrate a disadvantage of an active anti-predator response.
The professor says Fleeing—running away—is the most direct anti-predator response, but it requires the animal to expend a lot of energy. She then gives the example of a rabbit running away from a lynx. (2.3)
The professor says During mobbing, the prey turns the tables and attacks the predator; The chickadee starts scolding the owl…; The other birds chase, dive-bomb, or surround the owl, usually vocalizing loudly. (2.2)
The professor’s purpose is to explain why camouflage is not a perfect defense. Once the bird learns the moth s identity, it has a search image for it, and the moth s disguise is useless means that the moth’s camouflage is not effective after the bird learns that some leaves are actually moths. The bird will then search for moths that look like leaves. (2.3)
The professor means that some birds appear able to manage the poison of bees and wasps. Many birds eat bees and wasps, perhaps after learning to cope with their chemical defenses, which suggests that birds may develop ways to counteract the insects’ chemical weapons. (2.4)
- Chemical weapons: A toad squirts a nerve poison from glands on its back: .. .poisonous toads and frogs—can synthesize toxins that attack the nervous system of predators,
- Camouflage: A fish cannot be seen against rocks of the same color: …camouflage, which makes prey difficult to spot against a background of similar color.
- Warning coloration: A bird avoids eating a black and yellow striped wasp: …young warblers leave wasps alone because the birds recognize the danger in the black and yellow stripes of the wasp,
- Camouflage: An insect disguises itself to look like a leaf: Moths that camouflage themselves to match a leaf stand a good chance of not being seen…. (2.5)
TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 09 From Delta’s Key TOEFL Test Solution & Transcripts
Questions 1 through 5.
Listen to a conversation between two students.
W: Hey, I heard about your senior thesis show in Gallery Two! That’s great! I’m so proud of you, Malcolm!
M: Thanks. Yeah, I can hardly believe it myself. I’ve still got a lot to do before the opening, though.
W: When’s the opening?
M: Friday night. There’s going to be a reception starting at four o’clock. I hope to see you there.
W: That’s great! I’ll be there. Will there be food?
M: Of course there’ll be food! It’s an opening reception! The Friends of the Gallery are paying for it all.
W: I’ll definitely be there! Can I bring my roommate? She’s an artist, too, a painter.
M: Bring all your friends, as many as you like. The more, the merrier.
W: Great! So … tell me about your piece. It’s a sculpture, right?
M: Yeah, it’s three pieces actually, but they’re all connected. You’ve seen my boxes before, right?
W: Uh … yeah, I remember one box you did that was all different shades of white.
M: Yeah, that was last year. Well, I’m still into monochrome. This time it’s three boxes one red, one blue, and one black. And it’s sort of multimedia because there’s music involved.
W: No kidding! I’m intrigued. How did you do the music?
M: It wasn’t easy, believe me. Each box has a miniature CD player built into it, hidden out of sight. There’s a different style of music for each color. The red box plays Dixieland jazz, the blue one plays solo saxophone, and the black one is all sad violins.
W: So, your message is about the colors of the music.
M: Yes. Actually, I read an article on this topic about a year ago, and I think I’ve been carrying this idea around in my head ever since. There was this study about the moods of music, and it, um, showed that people sort of think of different kinds of music the different sounds and tones of music in terms of colors. People see lively music as red, and romantic music as blue, and sad music as black.
W: And so you found a way to put all of it color,music, form all in your thesis, Well done, Malcolm!
I can’t wait to see these boxes, and hear them too! It sounds awesome.
M: Thanks. I’m pleased that Gallery Two is showing it. So, what have you been up to? How’s your photography?
W: OK. I guess. I sent some of my pictures to the campus magazine, but they were rejected. 1 might have a picture in next year’s catalog, though it’s a shot I took of the … you know the stone benches in front of the nursing school?
M: Uh huh.
W Well, it’s a black and while shot of the benches covered in snow. The dean liked it, and they might use it in the catalog.
W: Well, I’ve got to go, got class in a few minutes. It was great running into you. I’ll see you Friday!
M: Great! See you later!