Solution & Explanation for TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 02 ( From TOEFL iBT IVY’s Reading 15 Actual Tests)
1. Factual Information I (B)
Q. According to paragraph 1, a defining feature of tundra is its
Why? -See Clue 1(B)[lines 10-13]
► The name comes from a Finnish word meaning “treeless plain.” As this description implies, tundra regions are relatively flat and devoid of large vegetation.
Why Not? (A) Not mentioned / (C), (D) Each mentioned in line 15, line 9 but not a defining feature of tundra
2. Vocabulary I (B)
Q. The word barren in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? empty can replace barren in this context. —See Clue 2(B)[lines 14-16]
• barren adj. unable to produce fruit or seeds
• empty adj. nothing inside
3. Factual Information I (A)
Q. In paragraph 2, the author states that Antarctic tundra
Why? -See Clue 3(A)[lines 22-23] mm Why Not? (B)-(D) Not mentioned
4. Reference I (D)
Q. The phrase the term in the passage refers to
Why? … most tundra falls into the Arctic category, and when used generally, the term usually refers to that region. —See Clue 4(D)[lines 22-24]
5. Sentence Simplification I (A)
Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
Why? ->Because this water cannot drain down through the solid permafrost, it collects at the surface, forming bogs and ponds that // provide water for the survival of both plants and animals and even act as breeding grounds for some insects.
Why Not? (B) Information about the forming process of bogs and ponds is left out.
(D) Information about the benefits that bogs and ponds provide plants and animals with is left out.
6. Inference I (D)
Q. According to paragraph 4, what can be inferred about the majority of plants in the tundra?
Why? (D) can be inferred from the information in lines 53-54. —See Clue 6(D)
Why Not? (A) Not supported / (B) Incorrect —See lines 60-61 / (C) Incorrect —See lines 56-57
7. Vocabulary I (B)
Q. The word scarcely in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? rarely can replace scarcely in this context. “-See Clue 7(B)[lines 60-62]
• scarcely adv. barely or almost none at all
• rarely adv. not often
8. Vocabulary I (A)
Q. The word fluctuations in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? changes can replace fluctuations in this context. “-See Clue 8(A)[lines 74-76]
• fluctuation n. change in a measurable thing
o change n. process or outcome of something or someone becoming different
9. Rhetorical Purpose I (D)
Q. Why does the author discuss the lemming in paragraph 5?
Why? The lemming is discussed as an example of one key species that can determine the population of other animals. “-See Clue 9(D)[lines 78-80]
10. Negative Fact I (C)
Q. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as differences between tundra and other biomes EXCEPT
|Incorrect Answer Choices||— Mentioned in the passage|
(A) the instability of animal populations
[lines 75-76] larger than normal fluctuations in the animal populations
|(B) a permanently frozen layer of soil||[lines 27-28] the ground remains frozen year round|
|(D) low yearly precipitation levels||[lines 39-40] only six to ten inches of precipitation annually|
11. Insert Text ! C
Q. Look at the four squares [|] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
Why? B Similar to tundra plants, the animals in this biome reproduce quickly during the short period in summer when resources are more abundant. C Many of them also develop excess layers of fat at this time to protect them from the approaching cold. In winter, most animals either migrate farther south or remain in hibernation until the spring. D
► “them” in the given sentence refers to “the animals,” and “this time” refers to “the short period in summer.” Also is used to supplement the preceding information.
12. Prose Summary
Q. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Why? Its harsh climate and thick layer of frozen soil make the Arctic tundra one of Earth’s most unique biomes.
|Correct Answer Choices||Clues in the passage|
|(A) Even though the tundra is usually very cold and dry, melting ice in summer produces surface water that can sustain various species.||Clue 12(A)[lines 31-33] temperatures in the tundra biome remain low for most of the year [line 38] the tundra biome is one of the world’s driest
[lines 40-42] Life is sustained by the ice in the soil and the aboveground snow that melt during the summer months.
|(B) Plants have adapted to the tundra by developing shallow roots and taking advantage of the short summer growing season.||Clue 12(B)[lines 53-54] plants with shallow root systems are best adapted for survival [lines 58-60] the plants able to grow and reproduce quickly during this brief time have the best chance of survival|
|(D) Many animals inhabiting the tundra survive by reproducing quickly in summer and either migrating or hibernating in winter.||Clue 12(D)[lines 69-73] the animals in this biome reproduce quickly during the short period in summer when resources are most abundant. In winter, most animals either migrate farther south or remain in hibernation until the spring.|
► The whole passage focuses on the environmental features of the tundra region and adaptation of the tundra plants and animals. And it follows that ((A) The environmental features of tundra region —• (B) Adaptation of tundra plants — (D) Adaptation of tundra animals) «-See <Graphic Organizer) on p.255
Why Not? (C) Mentioned in lines 12-13, 60-61, but minor / (E) Mentioned in lines 82-85, but minor / (F) Not mentioned