TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 46 from The Official Guide to the TOEFL Test
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Reading Directions: This section measures your ability to understand academic passages in English.
The Reading section is divided into separately timed parts.
Most questions are worth 1 point, but the last question for each passage is worth more than 1 point. The directions for the last question indicate how many points you may receive. You will now begin the Reading section. There are three passages in the section. You should allow 20 minutes to read each passage and answer the questions about it. You should allow 60 minutes to complete the entire section.
P1: There are two main hypotheses when it comes to explaining the emergence of modern humans. The ‘Out of Africa’ theory holds that homo sapiens burst onto the scene as a new species around 150,000 to 200,000 years ago in Africa and subsequently replaced archaic humans such as the Neandertals. The other model, known as multi-regional evolution or regional continuity, posits far more ancient and diverse roots for our kind. Proponents of this view believe that homo sapiens arose in Africa some 2 million years ago and evolved as a single species spread across the Old World, with populations in different regions linked through genetic and cultural exchange.
P2: Of these two models, Out of Africa, which was originally developed based on fossil evidence, and supported by much genetic research, has been favored by the majority of evolution scholars. The vast majority of these genetic studies have focused on DNA from living populations, and although some small progress has been made in recovering DNA from Neandertal that appears to support multi-regionalism, the chance of recovering nuclear DNA from early human fossils is quite slim at present. Fossils thus remain very much a part of the human origins debate.
P3: Another means of gathering theoretical evidence is through bones. Examinations of early modern human skulls from Central Europe and Australia dated to between 20,000 and 30,000 years old have suggested that both groups apparently exhibit traits seen in their Middle Eastern and African predecessors. But the early modern specimens from Central Europe also display Neandertal traits, and the early modern Australians showed affinities to archaic Homo from Indonesia. Meanwhile, the debate among paleoanthropologists continues , as supporters of the two hypotheses challenge the evidence and conclusions of each other.
1. The passage primarily discusses which of the following
(A) Evidence that supports the “Out of Africa” theory
(B) Two hypotheses and some evidence on the human origins debate
(C) The difficulties in obtaining agreement among theorists on the human origins debate
(D) That fossils remain very much a part of the human origins deba
2. The word “emergence” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to
3. The word “proponents” in paragraph 1 is closet in meaning to
4. All of the following are true except
(A) three methods of gathering evidence are mentioned in the passage
(B) the multi-regional model goes back further in history.
(C) the Out of Africa model has had more support from scholars
(D) DNA studies offer one of the best ways in future to provide clear evidence.
5. The word “slim” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
6. Which of the following is not true
(A) the vast majority of genetic studies have focused on living populations
(B) early modern human skulls all support the same conclusions
(C) both hypotheses focus on Africa as a location for the new species.
(D) early modern Australian skulls have similarities to those from Indonesia.
7. In paragraph 3, the word “their ” refers to which of the following
(A) Middle Easterners and Africans
(C) central Europeans and Australians
8. Which of the following is NOT true about the two hypotheses
(A) Both hypotheses regard Neandertals to be the predecessors of modern humans
(B) Genetic studies have supported both hypotheses
(C) Both hypotheses cite Africa as an originating location.
(D) One hypothesis dates the emergence of homo sapiens much earlier than the other.
9. It can be inferred from the passage that
(A) there is likely to be an end to the debate in the near future
(B) the debate will interest historians to take part in
(C) the debate is likely to be less important in future
(D) there is little likelihood that the debate will die down.
10. According to the passage, the multi-regional evolution model posits far more diverse roots for our kind because
(A) Evidence from examinations of early modern human skulls has come from a number of different parts of the world.
(B) DNA from Neandertal appears to support multi-regionalism
(C) Populations in different regions were linked through genetic and cultural exchange
(D) This has been supported by fossil evidence
P1: Although management principles have been implemented since ancient times, most management scholars trace the beginning of modern management thought back to the early 1900s, beginning with the pioneering work of Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) Taylor was the first person to study work scientifically. He is most famous for introducing techniques of time and motion study, differential piece rate systems, and for systematically specializing the work of operating employees and managers. Along with other pioneers such as Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, Taylor set the stage, labeling his philosophy and methods “scientific management’. At that time, his philosophy, which was concerned with productivity, but which was often misinterpreted as promoting worker interests at the expense of management, was in marked contrast to the prevailing industrial norms of worker exploitation.
P2: The time and motion study concepts were popularized by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. The Gilbreths had 12 children. By analyzing his children’s dishwashing and bedmaking chores, this pioneer efficiency expert, Frank Gilbreth, hit on principles whereby workers could eliminate waste motion. He was memorialized by two of his children in their 1949 book called “Cheaper by the Dozen”.
P3: The Gilbreth methods included using stop watches to time worker movements and special tools (cameras and special clocks) to monitor and study worker performance, and also involved identification of “therbligs” (Gilbreth spelled backwards) – basic motions used in production jobs. Many of these motions and accompanying times have been used to determine how long it should take a skilled worker to perform a given job. In this way an industrial engineer can get a handle on the approximate time it should take to produce a product or provide a service. However, use of work analysis in this way is unlikely to lead to useful results unless all five work dimensions are considered: physical, psychological, social, cultural, and power.
11. What is the passage primarily about?
(A) The limitations of pioneering studies in understanding human behavior
(B) How time and motion studies were first developed
(C) The first applications of a scientific approach to understanding human behavior
(D) The beginnings of modern management theory
12. The word “ which” in paragraph 1 refers to
(A) scientific management
(D) time and motion studytry
13. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that
(A) workers welcomed the application of scientific management
(B) Talor’s philosophy is different from the industrial norms
(C) by the early 1900s science had reached a stage where it could be applied to the workplace
(D) workers were no longer exploited after the introduction of scientific management.
14. The word “prevailing” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to
(B) broadly accepted
15. According to the passage, Frank Gilbreth discovered how workers could eliminate waste motion by
(A) using special tools such as cameras and clocks
(B) using stop watches
(C) applying scientific management principles
(D) watching his children do their chores
16. The basic motions used in production jobs were given which one of following names by Frank Gilbreth?
17. According to the passage, the time it takes a skilled worker to perform the motion of a given job can be measured by using
(A) stop watches
(B) all five work dimensions
(C) special tools
18. The word “motions” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) stop watches
(D) special tools
19.Where in the passage does the author comment that the principles of scientific management were often misunderstood?
(A) […Although management principles have been implemented since ancient times, most management scholars trace the beginning of modern management thought back to the early 1900s, beginning with the pioneering work of Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) Taylor was the first person to study work scientifically. He is most famous for introducing techniques of time and motion study, differential piece rate systems, and for systematically…]
(B) […specializing the work of operating employees and managers. Along with other pioneers such as Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, Taylor set the stage, labeling his philosophy and methods “scientific management’. At that time, his philosophy, which was concerned with productivity, but which was often misinterpreted as promoting worker interests at the expense of management, was in marked contrast to the prevailing industrial norms of…]
(C) […The time and motion study concepts were popularized by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. The Gilbreths had 12 children. By analyzing his children’s dishwashing and bedmaking chores, this pioneer efficiency expert, Frank Gilbreth, hit on principles whereby workers could eliminate waste motion. He was memorialized by two of his children in their 1949…]
(D) […book called “Cheaper by the Dozen”. The Gilbreth methods included using stop watches to time worker movements and special tools (cameras and special clocks) to monitor and study worker performance, and also involved identification of “therbligs” (Gilbreth spelled backwards) – basic motions used in production jobs. Many of these motions and accompanying times have been used …]
20. The word “ dimensions” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to
21. All of the following are true except
(A) scientific management was concerned with productivity.
(B) the beginnings of modern management thought commenced in the 19th century.
(C) Frank Gilbreth’s fame was enhanced by two of his children writing a book.
(D) analyzing work to increase productivity is not likely to be useful unless all of the dimensions are considered.
P1: During the early years of this century, wheat was seen as the very lifeblood of Western Canada. When the crops were good, the economy was good; when the crops failed, there was depression. People on city streets watched the yields and the price of wheat with almost as much feeling as if they were growers. The marketing of wheat became an increasingly favorite topic of conversation.
P2: War set the stage for the most dramatic events in marketing the western crop. For years, farmers mistrusted speculative grain selling as carried on through the Winnipeg Grain Exchange. Wheat prices were generally low in the autumn, but farmers could not wait for markets to improve. It had happened too often that they sold their wheat soon after harvest when’ farm debts were coming due, only to see prices rising and speculators getting rich. On various occasions, producer groups asked for firmer controls. but governments had no wish to become involved, at least not until wartime wheat prices threatened to run wild.
P3: Anxious to check inflation and rising living costs, the federal government appointed a board of grain supervisors to handle deliveries from the crops of 1917 and 1918. Grain Exchange trading was suspended, and farmers sold at prices fixed by the board. To handle the crop of 919, the government appointed the first Canadian Wheat Board, with full authority to buy, sell, and set prices..
22. What is the main purpose of the passage?
(A) To explain how wheat is marketed today
(B) To justify suspension of trading on the Grain Exchange
(C) To describe the origins of the Canadian Wheat Board
(D) To argue for further reforms on the Canadian Wheat Board
23. The author uses the term “lifeblood” (in paragraph 1) to indicate that wheat was
(A) difficult to produce in large quantities
(B) susceptible to many parasites
(C) essential to the health of the country
(D) expensive to gather and transport.
24. According to the passage, most farmers debts had to be paid
(A) when the autumn harvest had just been competed
(A) because wheat prices were high
(C) as soon as the Winnipeg Grain Exchange demanded payment
(D) when crop failure caused depression
25. According to the passage, wheat prices be-came unmanageable because of conditions caused by
26. In paragraph 3, the word “check” could best be replaced by which of the following?
27. According to the passage, a preliminary step in the creation of the Canadian Wheat Board was the appointment of
(A) the Winnipeg Grain Exchange
(B) a board of supervisors
(C) several producer groups
(D) a new government
|1. B||2. C||3. B|
|4. D||5. A||6. B|
|7. C||8. A||9. D|
|10. C||11. D||12. B|
|13. B||14. A||15. D|
|16. C||17. D||18. C|
|19. B||20. C||21. B|
|22. C||23. C||24. A|
|25. D||26. A||27. B|